Stainless Steel 332 Grade (UNS S33200)


Stainless Steel 332 is a specific grade within the stainless steel family known for its corrosion resistance and durability. It belongs to the austenitic class of stainless steels, characterized by its high chromium and nickel content, which provides excellent resistance to corrosion, oxidation, and rusting in various environments.

This particular grade, Stainless Steel 332, typically contains around 17-19% chromium and 8-10% nickel along with other elements like manganese, silicon, and molybdenum in smaller quantities. These alloying elements contribute to its exceptional resistance to both corrosion and high temperatures.

Stainless Steel 332 finds applications in diverse industries such as chemical processing, food and beverage, pharmaceuticals, and marine environments due to its ability to withstand corrosive elements and maintain its structural integrity over time.

Its excellent formability, weldability, and strength make it a preferred choice for various structural components, piping systems, and equipment that require resistance to corrosion and reliability in harsh conditions.

Overall, Stainless Steel 332 stands out for its robustness, resistance to corrosion, and versatility, making it a valuable material in numerous industrial and commercial applications.

Chemical Composition

  • Stainless Steel 332 is an austenitic stainless steel known for its corrosion resistance and durability. Its chemical composition plays a crucial role in imparting these properties:
  • Chromium (Cr): Typically comprises around 17-19%. Chromium is the key element that provides Stainless Steel 332 with its corrosion resistance by forming a thin, passive oxide layer on the surface, protecting it from oxidation and rust.
  • Nickel (Ni): Contains approximately 8-10%. Nickel contributes to the alloy's resistance against corrosion and provides stability against acidic environments, enhancing its overall durability.
  • Other Alloying Elements: Stainless Steel 332 may also contain smaller amounts of elements like manganese, silicon, and molybdenum. Manganese enhances strength and hardness, while silicon aids in improving oxidation resistance. Molybdenum further enhances corrosion resistance, particularly in chloride-rich environments.
  1. Element    Content (%)
  2. Nickel, Ni    31
  3. Chromium, Cr    20.5
  4. Manganese, Mn    1
  5. Silicon, Si    0.4
  6. Titanium, Ti    0.3
  7. Aluminum, Al    0.3
  8. Copper, Cu    0.2
  9. Carbon, C    0.03
  10. Phosphorous, P    0.02
  11. Sulfur, S    0.01
  12. Iron, Fe    Balance

332 Stainless steel Mechanical properties

  • Tensile Strength: Typically ranges between 600 MPa to 87000 psi pounds per square inch (psi).
  • Yield Strength: Falls in the range of 294 MPa to 42600 ksi.
  • Hardness: Typically measures around 150 to 200 Brinell hardness units (BHN).
  • Elongation: Generally exhibits an elongation of 44% or more, indicating its ability to stretch before breaking.
  • Modulus of Elasticity: Typically around 28 x 10^6 psi, denoting its stiffness or ability to return to its original shape after deformation.

These values may vary slightly based on specific manufacturing processes, heat treatments, or exact chemical compositions of the Stainless Steel 332 alloy used. Always refer to the manufacturer's datasheets or specifications for precise mechanical property values.

AISI 332 Manufacturing process

Stainless Steel 332, an austenitic stainless steel, is manufactured through a process involving melting and refining raw materials to achieve the desired chemical composition. The primary steps include:

Raw Material Selection: High-quality raw materials, mainly iron ore, chromium, nickel, and other alloying elements like manganese, silicon, and molybdenum, are selected based on precise proportions for the desired grade.

  • Melting and Refining: The raw materials are melted in an electric arc furnace or an induction furnace at extremely high temperatures, reaching around 1600-1700°C. This process ensures thorough mixing to achieve the specific chemical composition required for Stainless Steel 332.
  • Casting: Once molten, the alloy is cast into semi-finished forms like slabs, blooms, or billets using casting methods such as continuous casting or ingot casting.
  • Forming and Shaping: The cast semi-finished products are further processed through hot rolling, cold rolling, or forging to achieve the desired dimensions and shapes, like sheets, plates, bars, or tubes.
  • Heat Treatment: Heat treatment processes like annealing, quenching, or tempering may be applied to refine the microstructure and enhance mechanical properties like strength, hardness, and ductility.
  • Surface Finishing: Various finishing techniques like pickling, passivation, or polishing are used to improve the surface quality, removing impurities and ensuring a clean, smooth finish.
  • Quality Control: Stringent quality checks and inspections are carried out throughout the manufacturing process to ensure the material meets industry standards for composition, mechanical properties, and surface finish.

This intricate manufacturing process results in Stainless Steel 332, known for its corrosion resistance, mechanical strength, and suitability for a wide range of industrial applications.

Stainless Steel 332 Applications

Stainless Steel 332, esteemed for its corrosion resistance and durability, finds application across various industries:

  • Chemical Processing: Used in equipment like storage tanks, piping systems, and reactors due to its resistance to corrosive chemicals.
  • Food and Beverage: Ideal for food processing equipment, brewing tanks, and kitchen surfaces due to its hygienic properties and resistance to food acids.
  • Pharmaceuticals: Utilized in pharmaceutical manufacturing for equipment like storage vessels and pharmaceutical processing equipment where cleanliness and resistance to chemicals are vital.
  • Marine Environments: Employed in marine applications due to its resistance to saltwater corrosion, making it suitable for boat fittings, offshore platforms, and marine structures.
  • Oil and Gas Industry: Used in pipelines, valves, and fittings in oil refineries and offshore drilling rigs due to its corrosion resistance in harsh environments.
  • Automotive: Finds application in exhaust systems, catalytic converters, and other automotive components due to its heat resistance and durability.
  • Construction: Utilized in architectural structures, roofing, and cladding due to its aesthetic appeal, strength, and resistance to corrosion.
  • Medical Equipment: Used in medical instruments and surgical tools due to its biocompatibility and resistance to sterilization methods.
  • Stainless Steel 332's versatility, corrosion resistance, and strength make it a preferred material across diverse industries for applications demanding reliability, durability, and resistance to harsh environments.

AISI 332 Characteristics

Stainless Steel 332 boasts several key characteristics that make it highly sought after in various industries:

  • Corrosion Resistance: Exceptional resistance to corrosion, particularly in harsh and corrosive environments, thanks to its high chromium and nickel content.
  • Durability: Exhibits excellent durability and longevity, making it suitable for applications that require resistance to wear, tear, and degradation over time.
  • Strength and Toughness: Maintains good strength and toughness, providing structural integrity and reliability in demanding conditions.
  • Heat Resistance: Retains its properties at high temperatures, making it suitable for applications involving elevated temperatures and thermal cycling.
  • Formability and Fabrication: Offers good formability and weldability, allowing for various fabrication processes and customization in manufacturing.
  • Hygienic Properties: Possesses hygienic qualities, making it suitable for applications in industries like food, pharmaceuticals, and healthcare.
  • Aesthetic Appeal: Often appreciated for its aesthetic appeal, lending a clean, polished, and professional look to applications in architecture and design.

Welding process of 332 Stainless steel

The welding process for Stainless Steel 332, an austenitic stainless steel, typically involves techniques tailored to preserve its corrosion resistance and mechanical properties. Common welding methods include:

  • Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW): Utilizes a flux-coated electrode, creating an arc between the electrode and the workpiece. This method is versatile but requires attention to control the heat input to prevent excessive oxidation.
  • Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW/TIG): Involves a non-consumable tungsten electrode, allowing precise control over the welding process. It produces high-quality welds but demands skill to prevent contamination and maintain the alloy's integrity.
  • Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW/MIG): Uses a consumable wire electrode fed through a welding gun, often in a shielding gas atmosphere. It offers high productivity but requires adequate shielding to prevent oxidation.
  • Resistance Spot Welding: Utilizes pressure and electrical resistance to join Stainless Steel 332 sheets or components at specific points. It's commonly used for thin materials in mass production but may require surface preparation to avoid contamination.

Forging process of 332 Stainless steel

The forging process for Stainless Steel 332 involves shaping the alloy into desired forms through controlled application of force and temperature. The steps typically include:

  • Billet Preparation: High-quality Stainless Steel 332 is initially heated to a forging temperature, generally around 2150-2350°F (1175-1285°C), to render it malleable for shaping.
  • Forming: The heated metal is placed in a forging press or hammer, where controlled force is applied to shape it into the desired form—like bars, blocks, or specific components.
  • Reduction: The forged metal is subjected to repeated shaping and compression, reducing its size and adjusting its grain structure for enhanced strength and integrity.
  • Heat Treatment: Post-forging, heat treatment processes like annealing or tempering may be applied to refine the microstructure and relieve internal stresses, optimizing mechanical properties.
  • Surface Finish: The forged components might undergo surface finishing processes such as machining, grinding, or polishing to achieve precise dimensions and desired surface characteristics.

332 stainless steel equivalent Grades

Stainless Steel 332, being a specific grade, might not have direct equivalents in other stainless steel standards. However, it shares similarities in terms of its chemical composition and properties with other austenitic stainless steel grades such as AISI 304, AISI 316, or ASTM A240 Type 347.

  • AISI 304: Known for its general-purpose corrosion resistance and formability, similar to Stainless Steel 332. However, Stainless Steel 332 often contains higher nickel and chromium content, offering improved corrosion resistance in certain environments.
  • AISI 316: Recognized for its enhanced corrosion resistance, especially in chloride-rich environments, akin to the corrosion resistance properties of Stainless Steel 332.
  • ASTM A240 Type 347: Shares similarities in terms of high-temperature resistance and corrosion resistance against intergranular corrosion, similar to Stainless Steel 332.

332 stainless steel price 

As of my last update in January 2022, Stainless Steel 332, like other stainless steel grades, experienced fluctuations in price influenced by various factors:

  • Raw Material Costs: Fluctuations in the prices of raw materials like nickel, chromium, and molybdenum, which are key components of Stainless Steel 332, directly impact its overall price.
  • Market Demand: Changes in market demand, influenced by industries such as construction, automotive, oil and gas, and manufacturing, can affect the price of Stainless Steel 332.
  • Global Economic Conditions: Economic shifts, trade policies, and geopolitical factors influence the pricing of stainless steel and its grades, including Stainless Steel 332.
  • Manufacturing and Processing Costs: Production, processing, and transportation costs also contribute to the final price of Stainless Steel 332.

Due to the ever-changing nature of these factors, the price of Stainless Steel 332 can vary over time. It's advisable to consult industry publications, stainless steel suppliers, or commodity pricing platforms for the most current and accurate pricing information.