Stainless steel is an all-around and most used product within many sectors. It is resistant to corrosion, coupled with its robustness. Specifically, one kind, Stainless Steel Grade 440, possesses remarkable attributes. Now that we have background knowledge of grade 440 let's look at its properties. We will also explore its uses in industry and points to consider when welding.

440 Chemical Composition

Stainless Steel Grade 440 is a high-carbon martensitic stainless steel. Its chemical composition plays a crucial role in determining its characteristics:

  • Carbon (C): Carbon content generally varies between 0.65% and 0.75%. Carbon gives it a hardness as well as a better wear resistance property.
  • Chromium (Cr): Chromium content is approximately 16%, up to 18%. It is the reason why the SS 440 is corrosion-resistant.
  • Manganese (Mn): Manganese is present in small quantities not exceeding 1%. It affects the strength and hardness of grade 440.
  • Silicon (Si): Silicon is present in small quantities. The silicon's presence makes grade 440 ideal for applications requiring strength.
  • Molybdenum (Mo): The presence of Molybdenum contributes to corrosion resistance.

440 Mechanical Properties

The mechanical properties of Grade 440 make it suitable for demanding tasks:

  • Hardness: The hardness of grade 440 exceeds 50 HRC (Rockwell Hardness). It means grade 440 provides excellent stiffness or resistance to deformation.
  • Tensile Strength: Tensile strength ranges from 600 to 900MPa.
  • Yield Strength: Yield strength is around 450 MPa. It defines the amount of load it can sustain before it undergoes a plastic deformation.
  • Elongation: Elongation is low, leading to its brittleness.

Hence, grade 440 is suitable for applications requiring high hardness and strength.

440 Physical Properties

Apart from its mechanical properties, understanding the physical properties of Grade 440 is essential:

  • Density: It is a dense compound of approximately 7.75 g/cm³.
  • Melting Point: The melting point is more than 1400’C offering stability at high temperatures.
  • Thermal Conductivity: The thermal conductivity is moderate, offering efficient heat dissipation.

The physical properties of grade 440 describe its performance.

440 Stainless Steel Uses

Stainless Steel Grade 440 finds applications in various industries. Its unique combination of properties is the reason behind its varied usage:

  • Cutlery: It is suitable for making knives and cutting tools due to its hardness.
  • Bearings and Valves: Because of its corrosion resistance and strength, it is suitable for making Bearings and Valves.
  • Surgical Instruments: The grade 440 is biocompatible and durable. It promotes its manufacturing of medical tools.

440 Stainless Steel Welding

Welding Grade 440 requires care because of its high carbon content. Key points include:

  • Preheating: Preheating is necessary to prevent cracks in welding.
  • PostWeld Heat Treatment: It helps restore mechanical properties.
  • Low Carbon Electrodes: Low-carbon electrodes reduce the likelihood of carbide precipitation.

The quality of welding is essential to keep its properties and performance.

440 Stainless Steel Applications

The applications of Grade 440 are widespread, showcasing its adaptability:

  • Aerospace Industry: Its strength and corrosion-resistant characteristics make it ideal for the Aerospace Industry.
  • Oil and Gas Sector: Grade 440 is a good option for valves and other equipment exposed to harsh conditions.
  • Medical Field: Grade 440 biocompatibility and durability make it a good choice for surgical instrumentations and dental tools.


Stainless Steel Grade 440 is an exceptional material with an adequate chemical composition, mechanical solid characteristics, and vast uses. It is a deal material for various applications in many industry sectors. Knowing its chemical constituents, strength, shape, method of welding, and service helps us learn about stainless steel grade 440 and its usefulness in life.